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Moneycontrol.com ભારત | એકાઉન્ટીંગ નીતિ > Power - Transmission & Equipment > એકાઉન્ટીંગ નીતિ ને અનુસરો દ્રારા ઈન્ડો ટેક ટ્રાન્સફોર્મર્સ - બીએસઈ: 532717, ઍનઍસઈ : INDOTECH

ઈન્ડો ટેક ટ્રાન્સફોર્મર્સ

બીએસઈ: 532717  |  ઍનઍસઈ : INDOTECH  |  ISIN: INE332H01014  |  Power - Transmission & Equipment

શોધો ઈન્ડો ટેક ટ્રાન્સફોર્મર્સ કનેક્શન � માર્ચ 16
એકાઉન્ટીંગ નીતિ વર્ષ : માર્ચ '18

1 significant accounting polices

a. foreign currency

foreign currency transactions

Transactions in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency of the Company, at the exchange rates at the dates of the transactions or an average rate if the average rate approximates the actual rate at the date of the transaction.

Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate at the reporting date. Non-monetary assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value in a foreign currency are translated into the functional currency at the exchange rate when the fair value was determined. Nonmonetary assets and liabilities that are measured based on historical cost in a foreign currency are translated at the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Exchange differences are recognised in profit or loss.

b. financial instruments

(i) Recognition and initial measurement

Trade receivables and unbilled revenue are initially recognised when they are originated. All other financial assets and financial liabilities are initially recognised when the Company becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.

A financial asset or financial liability is initially measured at fair value plus, for an item not at fair value through profit and loss (FVTPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to its acquisition or issue.

(ii) classification and subsequent measurement financial assets

On initial recognition, a financial asset is classified as measured at

- amortised cost;

- Fair value through OCI (FVOCI) - debt investment;

- FVOCI-equity investment; or

- FVTPL

Financial assets are not reclassified subsequent to their initial recognition, except if and in the period the Company changes its business model for managing financial assets.

A financial asset is measured at amortised cost if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is to hold assets to collect contractual cash flows; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.

A debt investment is measured at FVOCI if it meets both of the following conditions and is not designated as at FVTPL:

- the asset is held within a business model whose objective is achieved by both collecting contractual cash flows and selling financial assets; and

- the contractual terms of the financial asset give rise on specified dates to cash flows that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding.”

On initial recognition of an equity investment that is not held for trading, the Company may irrevocably elect to present subsequent changes in the investments fair value in OCI (designated as FVOCI . equity investment). This election is made on an investment by investment basis.

All financial assets not classified as measured at amortised cost or FVOCI as described above are measured at FVTPL. This includes all derivative financial assets. On initial recognition, the Company may irrevocably designate a financial asset that otherwise meets the requirements to be measured at amortised cost or at FVOCI as at FVTPL if doing so eliminates or significantly reduces an accounting mismatch that would otherwise arise.

Financial assets: Subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial liabilities: Classification, subsequent measurement and gains and losses

Financial liabilities are classified as measured at amortised cost or FVTPL. A financial liability is classified as at FVTPL if it is classified as held-for-trading, or it is a derivative or it is designated as such on initial recognition. Financial liabilities at FVTPL are measured at fair value and net gains and losses, including any interest expense, are recognised in profit or loss. Other financial liabilities are subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Interest expense and foreign exchange gains and losses are recognised in profit or loss. Any gain or loss on derecognition is also recognised in profit or loss.

(iii) Derecognition

Financial assets

The Company derecognises a financial asset when the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or it transfers the rights to receive the contractual cash flows in a transaction in which substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset are transferred or in which the Company neither transfers nor retains substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership and does not retain control of the financial asset.

I f the Company enters into transactions whereby it transfers assets recognised on its balance sheet, but retains either all or substantially all of the risks and rewards of the transferred assets, the transferred assets are not derecognised.

Financial liabilities

The Company derecognises a financial liability when its contractual obligations are discharged or cancelled, or expire.

The Company also derecognises a financial liability when its terms are modified and the cash flows under the modified terms are substantially different. In this case, a new financial liability based on the modified terms is recognised at fair value. The difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability extinguished and the new financial liability with modified terms is recognised in profit or loss.

(iv) offsetting

Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount presented in the balance sheet when, and only when, the Company currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the amounts and it intends either to settle them on a net basis or to realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.

c. Property, plant and equipment

(i) Recognition and measurement

Items of property, plant and equipment are measured at cost, which includes capitalised borrowing costs, less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses, if any.

Cost of an item of property, plant and equipment comprises its purchase price, including import duties and non-refundable purchase taxes, after deducting trade discounts and rebates, any directly attributable cost of bringing the item to its working condition for its intended use and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

The cost of a self-constructed item of property, plant and equipment comprises the cost of materials and direct labor, any other costs directly attributable to bringing the item to working condition for its intended use, and estimated costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site on which it is located.

Any gain or loss on disposal of an item of property, plant and equipment is recognised in profit or loss.

(ii) Subsequent expenditure

Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.

(iii) Transition to Ind AS

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its property, plant and equipment recognised as at April 1, 2016, measured as per the previous GAAP, and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of such property, plant and equipment (Refer note 30).

(iv) Depreciation

Depreciation is provided on the straight line method over the useful life as prescribed under Part C of Schedule II of the Companies Act 2013. Freehold land is not depreciated.

Depreciation on additions (disposals) is provided on a pro-rata basis i.e. from (upto) the date on which asset is ready for use (disposed of).

d. Intangible assets

(i) recognition and measurement

Intangible assets that are acquired by the Company and have finite useful lives are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairment losses.

(ii) subsequent expenditure

Subsequent expenditure is capitalised only if it is probable that the future economic benefits associated with the expenditure will flow to the Company.

(iii) Transition to Ind As

On transition to Ind AS, the Company has elected to continue with the carrying value of all of its intangible assets recognised as at April 1, 2016, measured as per the previous GAAP, and use that carrying value as the deemed cost of such intangible assets.

(iv) Amortisation

Amortisation is calculated to write off the cost of intangible assets over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method, and is included in depreciation and amortisation in statement of profit and loss. Intangible assets comprise of softwares purchased which are amortised over a period of 5 years.

e. Inventories

Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value. The cost of inventories is based on the weighted average formula, and includes expenditure incurred in acquiring the inventories, production or conversion costs and other costs incurred in bringing them to their present location and condition. In the case of manufactured inventories and work-in-progress, cost includes an appropriate share of fixed production overheads based on normal operating capacity.

Net realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business, less the estimated costs of completion and selling expenses.

The net realisable value of work-in-progress is determined with reference to the selling prices of related finished products.

Raw materials, components and other supplies held for use in the production of finished products are not written down below cost except in cases where material prices have declined and it is estimated that the cost of the finished products will exceed their net realisable value.

The comparison of cost and net realisable value is made on an item-by-item basis.

f. Impairment

(i) Impairment of financial instruments

The Company recognises loss allowances for expected credit losses on financial assets measured at amortised cost;

At each reporting date, the Company assesses whether financial assets carried at amortised cost are credit-impaired. A financial asset is ‘credit-impaired’ when one or more events that have a detrimental impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset have occurred.

Evidence that a financial asset is credit-impaired includes the following observable data:

- significant financial difficulty of the customer;

- a breach of contract such as a default or being past due for 90 days or more;

- the restructuring of a loan or advance by the Company on terms that the Company would not consider otherwise;

- it is probable that the customer will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation; or

- the disappearance of an active market for a security because of financial difficulties.

Loss allowances for trade receivables are always measured at an amount equal to lifetime expected credit losses. Lifetime expected credit losses are the expected credit losses that result from all possible default events over the expected life of a financial instrument. The maximum period considered when estimating expected credit losses is the maximum contractual period over which the Company is exposed to credit risk.

When determining whether the credit risk of a financial asset has increased significantly since initial recognition and when estimating expected credit losses, the Company considers reasonable and supportable information that is relevant and available without undue cost or effort. This includes both quantitative and qualitative information and analysis, based on the Company’s historical experience and informed credit assessment and including forward-looking information.

Measurement of expected credit losses

Expected credit losses are a probability-weighted estimate of credit losses. Credit losses are measured as the present value of all cash shortfalls (i.e. the difference between the cash flows due to the Company in accordance with the contract and the cash flows that the Company expects to receive).

Presentation of allowance for expected credit losses in the balance sheet

Loss allowances for financial assets measured at amortised cost are deducted from the gross carrying amount of the assets.

Write-off

The gross carrying amount of a financial asset is written off (either partially or in full) to the extent that there is no realistic prospect of recovery. This is generally the case when the Company determines that the debtor does not have assets or sources of income that could generate sufficient cash flows to repay the amounts subject to the write-off. However, financial assets that are written off could still be subject to enforcement activities in order to comply with the Company’s procedures for recovery of amounts due.

(ii) Impairment of non-financial assets

The Company’s non-financial assets other than inventories, are reviewed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If any such indication exists, then the asset’s recoverable amount is estimated.

For impairment testing, assets that do not generate independent cash inflows are grouped together into cash-generating units (CGUs). Each CGU represents the smallest Company of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows of other assets or CGUs.

The recoverable amount of a CGU (or an individual asset) is the higher of its value in use and its fair value less costs to sell. Value in use is based on the estimated future cash flows, discounted to their present value using a pre-tax discount rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the CGU (or the asset).

The Company’s corporate assets do not generate independent cash inflows. To determine impairment of a corporate asset, recoverable amount is determined for the CGUs to which the corporate asset belongs.

An impairment loss is recognised if the carrying amount of an asset or CGU exceeds its estimated recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss.

In respect of other assets for which impairment loss has been recognised in prior periods, the Company reviews at each reporting date whether there is any indication that the loss has decreased or no longer exists. An impairment loss is reversed if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount. Such a reversal is made only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment loss had been recognised.

g. Non-current assets held for sale

Non-current assets are classified as held for sale if it is highly probable that they will be recovered primarily through sale rather than through continuing use.

Such assets are generally measured at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell. Losses on initial classification as held for sale and subsequent gains and losses on re-measurement are recognised in profit or loss.

Once classified as held-for-sale, intangible assets and property, plant and equipment are no longer amortised or depreciated.

h. Employee benefits

(i) Short-term employee benefits

Short-term employee benefit obligations are measured on an undiscounted basis and are expensed as the related service is provided. A liability is recognised for the amount expected to be paid e.g., under short-term cash bonus, if the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation to pay this amount as a result of past service provided by the employee, and the amount of obligation can be estimated reliably.

(ii) Defined contribution plans

A defined contribution plan is a post-employment benefit plan under which an entity pays fixed contributions into a separate entity and will have no legal or constructive obligation to pay further amounts. The Company makes specified monthly contributions towards Government administered provident fund scheme. Obligations for contributions to defined contribution plans are recognised as an employee benefit expense in profit or loss in the periods during which the related services are rendered by employees.

Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in future payments is available.

(iii) Defined benefit plans

A defined benefit plan is a post-employment benefit plan other than a defined contribution plan. The Company’s net obligation in respect of defined benefit plans is calculated by estimating the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in the current and prior periods, discounting that amount and deducting the fair value of any plan assets.

The calculation of defined benefit obligation is performed annually by a qualified actuary using the projected unit credit method. When the calculation results in a potential asset for the Company, the recognised asset is limited to the present value of economic benefits available in the form of any future refunds from the plan or reductions in future contributions to the plan (‘the asset ceiling’). In order to calculate the present value of economic benefits, consideration is given to any minimum funding requirements.

Remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability, which comprise actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets (excluding interest) and the effect of the asset ceiling (if any, excluding interest), are recognised in OCI. The Company determines the net interest expense (income) on the net defined benefit liability (asset) for the period by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation at the beginning of the annual period to the then-net defined benefit liability (asset), taking into account any changes in the net defined benefit liability (asset) during the period as a result of contributions and benefit payments. Net interest expense and other expenses related to defined benefit plans are recognised in profit or loss.

When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service (‘past service cost’ or ‘past service gain’) or the gain or loss on curtailment is recognised immediately in profit or loss. The Company recognises gains and losses on the settlement of a defined benefit plan when the settlement occurs.

(iv) Other long-term employee benefits

The Company’s net obligation in respect of long-term employee benefits other than post-employment benefits is the amount of future benefit that employees have earned in return for their service in the current and prior periods; that benefit is discounted to determine its present value, and the fair value of any related assets is deducted. The obligation is measured on the basis of an annual independent actuarial valuation using the projected unit credit method. Remeasurements gains or losses are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise.

(v) Termination benefits

Termination benefits are expensed at the earlier of when the Company can no longer withdraw the offer of those benefits and when the Company recognises costs for a restructuring. If benefits are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months of the reporting date, then they are discounted.

i. Provisions (other than for employee benefits)

A provision is recognised if, as a result of a past event, the Company has a present legal or constructive obligation that can be estimated reliably, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are determined by discounting the expected future cash flows (representing the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation at the balance sheet date) at a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The unwinding of the discount is recognised as finance cost. Expected future operating losses are not provided for.

(i) Warranties

A provision for warranties is recognised when the underlying products or services are sold. The provision is based on technical evaluation, historical warranty data and a weighting of all possible outcomes by their associated probabilities.

(ii) onerous contracts

A contract is considered to be onerous when the expected economic benefits to be derived by the Company from the contract are lower than the unavoidable cost of meeting its obligations under the contract. The provision for an onerous contract is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before such a provision is made, the Company recognises any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

j Earnings per share

Basic earnings per share is computed by dividing net profit or loss for the year attributable to equity shareholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. Diluted earnings per share amounts are computed after adjusting the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. The number of shares used in computing diluted earnings per share comprises the weighted average number of shares considered for deriving basic earnings per share, and also the weighted average number of equity shares, which could have been issued on the conversion of all dilutive potential shares.

k Revenue

(i) Sale of goods

Revenue from the sale of goods in the course of ordinary activities is measured at the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of returns, trade discounts and volume rebates, if any. Revenue is recognised when the significant risks and rewards of ownership have been transferred to the buyer, recovery of the consideration is probable, the associated costs and possible return of goods can be estimated reliably, there is no continuing effective control over, or managerial involvement with, the goods, and the amount of revenue can be measured reliably. The timing of transfers of risks and rewards varies depending on the individual terms of sale.

(ii) Rendering of services

Service income is recognized as the services are rendered on an accrual basis in accordance with the terms of the relevant contract.

l Leases (i) Determining whether an arrangement contains a lease

At inception of an arrangement, it is determined whether the arrangement is or contains a lease.

At inception or on reassessment of the arrangement that contains a lease, the payments and other consideration required by such an arrangement are separated into those for the lease and those for other elements on the basis of their relative fair values. If it is concluded for a finance lease that it is impracticable to separate the payments reliably, then an asset and a liability are recognised at an amount equal to the fair value of the underlying asset. The liability is reduced as payments are made and an imputed finance cost on the liability is recognised using the incremental borrowing rate.

(ii) Assets held under leases

Leases of property, plant and equipment that transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. The leased assets are measured initially at an amount equal to the lower of their fair value and the present value of the minimum lease payments. Subsequent to initial recognition, the assets are accounted for in accordance with the accounting policy applicable to similar owned assets.

Assets held under leases that do not transfer to the Company substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership (i.e. operating leases) are not recognised in the Company’s Balance Sheet.

(iii) Lease payments

Payments made under operating leases are generally recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease unless such payments are structured to increase in line with expected general inflation to compensate for the lessor’s expected inflationary cost increases. Lease incentives received are recognised as an integral part of the total lease expense over the term of the lease.

Minimum lease payments made under finance leases are apportioned between the finance charge and the reduction of the outstanding liability. The finance charge is allocated to each period during the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability.

m Recognition of interest income or expense

Interest income or expense is recognised using the effective interest method.

The ‘effective interest rate’ is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument to:

- the gross carrying amount of the financial asset; or

- the amortised cost of the financial liability.

In calculating interest income and expense, the effective interest rate is applied to the gross carrying amount of the asset (when the asset is not credit-impaired) or to the amortised cost of the liability. However, for financial assets that have become credit-impaired subsequent to initial recognition, interest income is calculated by applying the effective interest rate to the amortised cost of the financial asset. If the asset is no longer credit-impaired, then the calculation of interest income reverts to the gross basis.

n Income tax

Income tax comprises current and deferred tax. It is recognised in profit or loss except to the extent that it relates to an item recognised directly in equity or in other comprehensive income.

(i) current tax

Current tax comprises the expected tax payable or receivable on the taxable income or loss for the year and any adjustment to the tax payable or receivable in respect of previous years. The amount of current tax reflects the best estimate of the tax amount expected to be paid or received after considering the uncertainty, if any, related to income taxes. It is measured using tax rates (and tax laws) enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

Current tax assets and current tax liabilities are offset only if there is a legally enforceable right to set off the recognised amounts, and it is intended to realise the asset and settle the liability on a net basis or simultaneously.

(ii) Deferred tax

Deferred tax is recognised in respect of temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes and the corresponding amounts used for taxation purposes. Deferred tax is also recognised in respect of carried forward tax losses and tax credits.

Deferred tax is not recognised for temporary differences arising on the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction that is not a business combination and that affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss at the time of the transaction;

Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profits will be available against which they can be used. The existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. The Company recognises a deferred tax asset only to the extent that it has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which such deferred tax asset can be realised. Deferred tax assets - unrecognised or recognised, are reviewed at each reporting date and are recognised / reduced to the extent that it is probable / no longer probable respectively that the related tax benefit will be realised.

Deferred tax is measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on the laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the reporting date.

The measurement of deferred tax reflects the tax consequences that would follow from the manner in which the Company expects, at the reporting date, to recover or settle the carrying amount of its assets and liabilities.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset if there is a legally enforceable right to offset current tax liabilities and assets, and they relate to income taxes levied by the same tax authority on the same taxable entity, or on different tax entities, but they intend to settle current tax liabilities and assets on a net basis or their tax assets and liabilities will be realised simultaneously.

o Cash and cash equivalents

For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flow, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, deposits held at call with the financial institution, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and bank overdrafts.

p Segment reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. The Company considers it’s busines segment as it’s primary segment. The Company is engaged into the business of manufacture and sale of transformers and there are not more than one reportable segment as envisaged by Indian Accounting Standard 108 - Segment Reporting (Ind AS-108). Accordingly, amounts appearing in these financial statements relates to only manufacture and sale of transformers.

Further, the operations primarily cater to the needs of the domestic market. Accordingly, there are no separate reportable segments according to Ind AS-108.

q Recent accounting pronouncements

Ind AS 115 - Revenue from Contracts with Customers

I nd AS 115, establishes a comprehensive framework for determining whether, how much and when revenue should be recognised. It replaces existing revenue recognition guidance, including Ind AS 18 Revenue, Ind AS 11 Construction Contracts and Guidance Note on Accounting for Real Estate Transactions. Ind AS 115 is effective for annual periods beginning on or after April 01, 2018 and will be applied accordingly.

The Company has completed an initial assessment of the potential impact of the adoption of Ind AS 115 on accounting policies followed in its financial statements. The quantitative impact of adoption of Ind AS 115 on the financial statements in the period of initial application is not reasonably estimatible at present. The Company will adopt the standard on April 01, 2018 by using the cumulative catch-up transition method and accordingly the comparatives for the year ending or ended March 31, 2018 will not be retrospectively adjusted. The Company does not expect the impact of the adoption of the new standard to be material on its retained earnings and to its net income on an ongoing basis.

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